Yoon M, Ring C, Van Landingham CB, Suh M, Song G, Antonijevic T, Gentry PR, Taylor MD, Keen AM, Andersen ME, Clewell JH. 2019. Assessing children’s exposure to manganese in drinking water using a PBPK model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 380:114695
A previously published human PBPK model for manganese (Mn) in infants and children has been updated with Mn in drinking water as an additional exposure source. Built upon the ability to capture differences in Mn source-specific regulation of intestinal uptake in nursing infants who are breast-fed and formula-fed, the updated model now describes the bioavailability of Mn from drinking water in children of ages 0–18. The age-related features, including the recommended age-specific Mn dietary intake, age-specific water consumption rates, and age-specific homeostasis of Mn, are based on the available human data and knowledge of the biology of essential-metal homeostasis. Model simulations suggest that the impact of adding drinking-water exposure to daily Mn exposure via dietary intake and ambient air inhalation in children is not greater than the impacts in adults, even at a drinking-water concentration that is 2 times higher than the USEPA’s lifetime health advisory value. This conclusion was also valid for formula-fed infants who are considered at the highest potential exposure to Mn from drinking water compared to all other age groups. Our multi-route, multi-source Mn PBPK model for infants and children provides insights about the potential for Mn-related health effects on growing children and will thereby improve the level of confidence in properly interpreting Mn exposure-health effects relationships in children in human epidemiological studies.