Jackson MA, Lea I, Rashid A, Peddada SD, Dunnick JK. 2006. Genetic alterations in cancer knowledge system: Analysis of gene mutations in mouse and human liver and lung tumors. Toxicol Sci 90:400–418.
Mutational incidence and spectra for genes examined in both human and mouse lung and liver tumors were analyzed using the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Genetic Alterations in Cancer (GAC) knowledge system. GAC is a publicly available, web-based system for evaluating data obtained from peer-reviewed studies of genetic changes in tumors associated with exposure to chemical, physical, or biological agents, as well as spontaneous tumors. In mice, mutations in Kras2 and Hras-1 were the most common events reported for lung and liver tumors, respectively, whether chemically induced or spontaneous. There was a significant difference in Kras2 mutation incidence for spontaneous versus induced mouse lung tumors and in Hras-1 mutation incidence and spectrum for spontaneous versus induced mouse liver tumors. The major gene changes reported for human lung and liver tumors were in KRAS2 (lung only) and TP53. The KRAS2 mutation incidence was similar for spontaneous and asbestos-induced human lung tumors, while the TP53 mutation incidence differed significantly. Aflatoxin B1, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and vinyl chloride all caused TP53 mutations in human liver tumors, but the mutation spectrum for each agent differed. The incidence of KRAS2 mutations in human compared to mouse lung tumors differed significantly, as did the incidence of Hras and p53 gene mutations in human compared to mouse liver tumors. Differences observed in the mutation spectra for agent-induced compared to spontaneous tumors and similarities in spectra for structurally similar agents support the concept that mutation spectra can serve as a “fingerprint” of exposure based on chemical structure.