Thompson CM, Ceder R, Grafström RC. 2010. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase: Beyond phase I metabolism. Toxicol Lett 193(1):1-3.
Formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formally Class III alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH3), has recently been discovered to partially regulate nitrosothiol homeostasis by catalyzing the reduction of the endogenous nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Several studies have implicated this enzyme, and in particular GSNO reduction, as playing an important role in conditions such as asthma, cardiovascular disease, and immune function. While ADH3 has received considerable attention in the biomedical literature where it is often referred to as GSNO reductase (GSNOR), ADH3-mediated GSNO reduction has received comparatively less attention in the environmental toxicology community. Herein, evidences for a role of ADH3 in cell signaling through thiol homeostasis is highlighted, underscoring that the enzyme functions more broadly than to metabolize formaldehyde.